Some key references are listed below, relating to antimicrobial stewardship and infection surveillance.

Antimicrobial Stewardship

Antibiotic Expert Group. Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic. Version 16. Melbourne Therapeutic Guidelines Limited 2019.

Ashraf MS, Gaur S, Bushen OY, Chopra T, Chung P, Clifford K, Hames E, Hertogh C, Krishna A, Mahajan D, Mehr DR, Nalls V, Rowe TA, Schweon SJ, Sloane PD, Trivedi KK, van Buul LW, Jump RLP, Infection Advisory SubCommittee for A-TSoP-A, Long-Term Care M. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Settings: A Consensus Statement From AMDA’s Infection Advisory Subcommittee. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020;21(1):12-24 e2.

Cookson B, Mackenzie D, Kafatos G, Jans B, Latour K, Moro ML, Ricchizzi E, Van de Mortel M, Suetens C, Fabry J, National Network Representatives for the Healthcare-Associated Infections in Long-Term Care Facilities P. Development and assessment of national performance indicators for infection prevention and control and antimicrobial stewardship in European long-term care facilities. J Hosp Infect. 2013;85(1):45-53.

Doernberg SB, Dudas V, Trivedi KK. Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program targeting residents with urinary tract infections in three community long-term care facilities: a quasi-experimental study using time-series analysis. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2015;4:54.

Kistler CE, Zimmerman S, Scales K, Ward K, Weber D, Reed D, McClester M, Sloane PD. The Antibiotic Prescribing Pathway for Presumed Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Home Residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(8):1719-25.

Loeb M, Bentley DW, Bradley S, Crossley K, Garibaldi R, Gantz N, McGeer A, Muder RR, Mylotte J, Nicolle LE, Nurse B, Paton S, Simor AE, Smith P, Strausbaugh L. Development of minimum criteria for the initiation of antibiotics in residents of long-term-care facilities: results of a consensus conference. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001;22(2):120-4.

Loeb M, Brazil K, Lohfeld L, McGeer A, Simor A, Stevenson K, Zoutman D, Smith S, Liu X, Walter SD. Effect of a multifaceted intervention on number of antimicrobial prescriptions for suspected urinary tract infections in residents of nursing homes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005;331(7518):669.

McMaughan DK, Nwaiwu O, Zhao H, Frentzel E, Mehr D, Imanpour S, Garfinkel S, Phillips CD. Impact of a decision-making aid for suspected urinary tract infections on antibiotic overuse in nursing homes. BMC Geriatr. 2016;16:81.

Olsho LEW, Bertrand RM, Edwards AS, Hadden LS, Morefield GB, Hurd D, Mitchell CM, Sloane PD, Zimmerman S. Does adherence to the Loeb minimum criteria reduce antibiotic prescribing rates in nursing homes? J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(4):309.e1-7.

Penney C. Antimicrobial use and suitability in LTCFs. J Assco Med Microbiolo Infect Dis Can. 2018;3:209-16.

Shaban RZ, Sotomayor-Castillo C, Macbeth D, Russo PL, Mitchell BG. Scope of practice and educational needs of infection prevention and control professionals in Australian residential aged care facilities. Infect Dis Health. 2020;25(4):286-93.

Stuart RL, Marshall C, Orr E, Bennett N, Athan E, Friedman D, Reilly M, Members of Residential Aged Care Research Interest Group. Survey of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship practices in Australian residential aged-care facilities. Intern Med J. 2015;45(5):576-80.

van Buul LW, Vreeken HL, Bradley SF, Crnich CJ, Drinka PJ, Geerlings SE, Jump RLP, Mody L, Mylotte JJ, Loeb M, Nace DA, Nicolle LE, Sloane PD, Stuart RL, Sundvall PD, Ulleryd P, Veenhuizen RB, Hertogh C. The Development of a Decision Tool for the Empiric Treatment of Suspected Urinary Tract Infection in Frail Older Adults: A Delphi Consensus Procedure. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;19(9):757-64.

Infection Surveillance

D’Agata E, Loeb MB, Mitchell SL. Challenges in assessing nursing home residents with advanced dementia for suspected urinary tract infections. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(1):62-6.

Dick AW, Bell JM, Stone ND, Chastain AM, Sorbero M, Stone PW. Nursing home adoption of the National Healthcare Safety Network Long-term Care Facility Component. Am J Infect Control. 2019;47(1):59-64.

Epstein L, Stone ND, LaPlace L, Harper J, Lynfield R, Warnke L, Whitten T, Maloney M, Melchreit R, Rodriguez R, Quinlan G, Concannon C, Dumyati G, Thompson DL, Thompson N. Comparison of Data Collection for Healthcare-Associated Infection Surveillance in Nursing Homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37(12):1440-5.

Friedman C, Barnette M, Buck AS, Ham R, Harris JA, Hoffman P, Johnson D, Manian F, Nicolle L, Pearson ML, Perl TM, Solomon SL. Requirements for infrastructure and essential activities of infection control and epidemiology in out-of-hospital settings: a consensus panel report. Am J Infect Control. 1999;27(5):418-30.

Genao L, Buhr GT. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Adults Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities. Ann Longterm Care. 2012;20(4):33-8.

Haenen APJ, Verhoef LP, Beckers A, Gijsbers EF, Alblas J, Huis A, Hulscher M, de Greeff SC. Surveillance of infections in long-term care facilities (LTCFs): The impact of participation during multiple years on health care-associated infection incidence. Epidemiol Infect. 2019;147:e266.

Haenen. Surveillance of infections in NHs in the Netherlands: a systematic survey is feasible International journal of infection control.

Hajdu A, Eriksen HM, Sorknes NK, Hauge SH, Loewer HL, Iversen BG, Aavitsland P. Evaluation of the national surveillance system for point-prevalence of healthcare-associated infections in hospitals and in long-term care facilities for elderly in Norway, 2002-2008. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:923.

Happe J. Surveillance Definitions of Infections in Canadian Long Term Care Facilities IPAC News. 2017:10-6.

Hughes C, Ellard DR, Campbell A, Potter R, Shaw C, Gardner E, Agus A, O’Reilly D, Underwood M, Loeb M, Stafford B, Tunney M. Developing evidence-based guidance for assessment of suspected infections in care home residents. BMC Geriatr. 2020;20(1):59.

Juthani-Mehta M, Tinetti M, Perrelli E, Towle V, Van Ness PH, Quagliarello V. Diagnostic accuracy of criteria for urinary tract infection in a cohort of nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(7):1072-7.

Kariya N, Sakon N, Komano J, Tomono K, Iso H. Current prevention and control of health care-associated infections in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2018;24(5):347-52.

Lee MH, Lee GA, Lee SH, Park YH. Effectiveness and core components of infection prevention and control programmes in long-term care facilities: a systematic review. J Hosp Infect. 2019;102(4):377-93.

Lee TB, Montgomery OG, Marx J, Olmsted RN, Scheckler WE. Recommended practices for surveillance Am J Infect Control,. 2007;35(7):427-40.

Mitchell BG, Shaban RZ, MacBeth D, Russo P. Organisation and governance of infection prevention and control in Australian residential aged care facilities: A national survey. Infect Dis Health. 2019;24(4):187-93.

Moro ML. A significant step forward: new definitions for surveillance of infections in long-term care. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(10):978-80.

Mylotte JM. Decision Tools and Studies to Improve the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents: A Narrative Review. Drugs Aging. 2021;38(1):29-41.

Nace DA, Drinka PJ, Crnich CJ. Clinical uncertainties in the approach to long term care residents with possible urinary tract infection. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(2):133-9.

Nace DA, Perera SK, Hanlon JT, Saracco S, Anderson G, Schweon SJ, Klein-Fedyshin M, Wessel CB, Mulligan M, Drinka PJ, Crnich CJ. The Improving Outcomes of UTI Management in Long-Term Care Project (IOU) Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis of Uncomplicated Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;19(9):765-9 e3.

National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare Canberra NHMRC; 2019.

O’Neil CA, Kim L, Prill MM, Talbot HK, Whitaker B, Sakthivel SK, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Tong S, Stone N, Garg S, Gerber SI, Babcock HM. Respiratory viral surveillance of healthcare personnel and patients at an adult long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019;40(11):1309-12.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee. Best practices for surveillance of healthcare associated infections in patient and resident populations. 3rd ed. Toronto: Queens Printer for Ontario 2014

Palms DL, Mungai E, Eure T, Anttila A, Thompson ND, Dudeck MA, Edwards JR, Bell JM, Stone ND. The National Healthcare Safety Network Long-term Care Facility Component early reporting experience: January 2013-December 2015. Am J Infect Control. 2018;46(6):637-42.

Penna AR, Sancken CL, Stone ND, Eure TR, Bamberg W, Barney G, Barter D, Carswell S, Clogher P, Dumyati G, Felsen CB, Frank L, Godine D, Johnston H, Kainer MA, Li L, Lynfield R, Mahoehney JP, Nadle J, Pierce R, Ray SM, Davis SS, Sievers M, Wilson LE, Zhang AY, Magill SS, Thompson ND. Documentation of acute change in mental status in nursing homes highlights opportunity to augment infection surveillance criteria. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;41(7):848-50.

Rios P, Radhakrishnan A, Williams C, Ramkissoon N, Pham B, Cormack GV, Grossman MR, Muller MP, Straus SE, Tricco AC. Preventing the transmission of COVID-19 and other coronaviruses in older adults aged 60 years and above living in long-term care: a rapid review. Syst Rev. 2020;9(1):218.

Rowe TA, Jump RLP, Andersen BM, Banach DB, Bryant KA, Doernberg SB, Loeb M, Morgan DJ, Morris AM, Murthy RK, Nace DA, Crnich CJ. Reliability of nonlocalizing signs and symptoms as indicators of the presence of infection in nursing-home residents. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020:1-10.

Smith PW, Bennett G, Bradley S, Drinka P, Lautenbach E, Marx J, Mody L, Nicolle L, Stevenson K. SHEA/APIC guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility, July 2008. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29(9):785-814.

Stone ND, Ashraf MS, Calder J, Crnich CJ, Crossley K, Drinka PJ, Gould CV, Juthani-Mehta M, Lautenbach E, Loeb M, Maccannell T, Malani PN, Mody L, Mylotte JM, Nicolle LE, Roghmann MC, Schweon SJ, Simor AE, Smith PW, Stevenson KB, Bradley SF. Surveillance definitions of infections in long-term care facilities: Revisiting the McGeer criteria. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33(10):965-77.

Tammelin A. Infection surveillance in nursing homes in Stockholm County, Sweden, 2005-2014 International journal of infection control. 2016;12:1-8.

Talbot TR, Bratzler DW, Carrico RM, Diekema DJ, Hayden MK, Huang SS, Yokoe DS, Fishman NO, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory C. Public reporting of health care-associated surveillance data: recommendations from the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(9):631-5.

About Us

NISPAC is a multi-institute research project developing an infection surveillance program for Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities

NISPAC acknowledges Traditional Owners of Country throughout Australia and recognises the continuing  connection to lands, waters and communities. We pay our respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures; and to Elders past and present.